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Study Confirms Biomarkers Found in Urine Associated With Increased Lung Cancer Risk
An analysis of urine samples from 178 lung cancer patients and 351 healthy controls showed that two previously identified biomarkers found in urine are associated with increased lung cancer risk in white Americans. This study replicates previous findings, adding to the evidence that these markers might be effective as a screening tool for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the U.S.


Analysis Identifies New Targets for Salivary Duct Carcinoma
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a rare, aggressive type of head and neck cancer. An analysis of 31 SDC tumors showed these cancers have more mutations than other types of salivary cancers, and that some of these mutations could be targeted with currently available treatments. In addition, the mutations in these cancers are similar to those seen in molecular apocrine breast cancer, another rare type of tumor. These findings show how genetic analyses across cancer types could guide future studies and treatments.

Learn more in the online first April 21, 2016, Clinical Cancer Research.

Study Finds Way to Keep Cancer Therapies From Stifling Immune Response
In laboratory studies, researchers showed that small molecule inhibitors used to treat cancer could also suppress the T cells the immune system can use to kill cancer cells. The MEK inhibitor Mekinist (trametinib), approved to treat melanoma, was one targeted therapy that had this effect. However, giving the IL-15 superagonist ALT-803, which is currently in clinical trials, along with Mekinist appeared to keep this from occurring. The researchers say their findings illustrate why studying the effect small molecule inhibitors have on the immune system could lead to more effective cancer treatments.

Learn more in the May 1, 2016, Cancer Research.

New Long-Term Care Guidelines Available for Head and Neck Cancer Survivors
The American Cancer Society (ACS) released new survivorship care guidelines for head and neck cancer survivors and their primary care providers. They include information about follow-up care, managing side effects and making healthy lifestyle choices for patients with cancers of the larynx (voice box), pharynx, lip, mouth, throat and tongue. The ACS estimates about 436,000 head and neck cancer survivors are in the U.S.

Learn more in the May/June 2016 CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
Drug Combination Shrinks Duodenal Polyps in People With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
A small clinical trial of 92 people with the inherited condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) found that use of the drug combination of Tarceva (erlotinib) and Clinoril (sulindac) resulted in fewer precancerous polyps in the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine) than a placebo. This suggests taking both drugs might decrease the risk of duodenal cancer in FAP patients. The benefit was so pronounced that the trial was stopped early. However, the researchers say they still need to determine the best dosage for safety and effectiveness.
Learn more in the March 22/29, 2016, Journal of the American Medical Association.


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